2.8. Features

2.8.1. Czym są features?

Attribute is also known as field, variable or feature.

A quantity describing an instance. An attribute has a domain defined by the attribute type, which denotes the values that can be taken by an attribute. The following domain types are common:


A finite number of discrete values. The type nominal denotes that there is no ordering between the values, such as last names and colors. The type ordinal denotes that there is an ordering, such as in an attribute taking on the values low, medium, or high.

Continuous (quantitative):

Commonly, subset of real numbers, where there is a measurable difference between the possible values. Integers are usually treated as continuous in practical problems.

A feature is the specification of an attribute and its value. For example, color is an attribute. "Color is blue" is a feature of an example. Many transformations to the attribute set leave the feature set unchanged (for example, regrouping attribute values or transforming multi-valued attributes to binary attributes). Some authors use feature as a synonym for attribute (e.g., in feature-subset selection).

2.8.2. Przykład praktyczny

Jak odróżnić jabłko od pomarańczy?

  • ilość pikseli pomarańczowych i ich stosunek do zielonych/czerwonych

  • co z czarno białymi zdjęciami?

  • co ze zdjęciami bez jabłek i pomarańczy


Figure 2.49. Apple vs. Oranges classification using orange and green pixel count.

def detect_colors(image):
    # lots of code

def detect_edges(image):
    # lots of code

def analyze_shapes(image):
    # lots of code

def guess_texture(image):
    # lots of code

def define_fruit(image):
    # lots of code

def handle_probability(image):
    # lots of code
















Training Data table contains features and labels

# Input to the classifier
features = [
   [170, 'bumpy'],
   [150, 'bumpy'],
   [140, 'smooth'],
   [130, 'smooth'],

# Output that we want from classifier
labels = ['orange', 'orange', 'apple', 'apple']

Scikit-learn uses real-valued features:

# Input to the classifier
# 0: bumpy
# 1: smooth
features = [
    [140, 1],
    [130, 1],
    [150, 0],
    [170, 0],

# Output that we want from classifier
# 0: orange
# 1: apple
labels = [0, 0, 1, 1]

2.8.3. What Makes a Good Feature?


Figure 2.50. Features and labels. Features are input to classifier and labels are output from it.

  • Using one feature?

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

greyhounds = 500
labradors = 500

# Height in centimeters + 10cm variation
greyhounds_height = 70 + 10 * np.random.randn(greyhounds)
labradors_height = 60 + 10 * np.random.randn(labradors)

    [greyhounds_height, labradors_height],
    color=['red', 'blue']

plt.show()  # doctest: +SKIP

Figure 2.51. Dogs height Classification Probability

  • How many features do you need?

  • What features are good?


Figure 2.52. Is this a good feature for classifier? Why?

  • Avoid useless features, it might lower classifier accuracy.

  • Independent features are the best. Avoid redundant features.

  • Dependent features looks like this:

    • Height in inches

    • Height in centimeters

  • Easy to understand features.

  • Look for informative features.

2.8.4. Assignments Feature Engineering

  • Assignment: Feature Engineering

  • Complexity: easy

  • Lines of code: 15 lines

  • Time: 13 min

TODO: English Translation

Run doctests - all must succeed

  1. Celem zadania będzie opracowanie tabeli, cech osób, które czynią z niego astronautę.

  2. Istotne jest dobranie odpowiednich kolumn cech oraz wpisanie wartości

  3. Dane kontrargumentowe możesz dobrać dowolnie

  4. Na podstawie danych wybranych astronautów:

  5. Stwórz listę features dla kilkunastu cech osób

  6. Stwórz CSV z wybranych przez Ciebie danych i załaduj za pomocą biblioteki pandas

  7. Do

  8. Uruchom test wagi parametrów

  9. Czy Twoje features mają wysokie znaczenie?

  10. Uruchom doctesty - wszystkie muszą się powieść

  • np.genfromtxt()

  • np.array() i .transpose()

from sklearn import preprocessing

features = ["paris", "paris", "tokyo", "amsterdam"]

label_encoder = preprocessing.LabelEncoder()
labels = label_encoder.fit_transform()
# array([1, 1, 2, 0])

# ['amsterdam', 'paris', 'tokyo']
from sklearn import preprocessing
from sklearn.ensemble import ExtraTreesClassifier

# Normalize the features so that it does not affect the learning algorithm

# Fit the Tree algorithm
# This class implements a meta estimator that fits a number of randomized decision trees (a.k.a. extra-trees) on various sub-samples of the dataset and use averaging to improve the predictive accuracy and control over-fitting.
model = ExtraTreesClassifier()
model.fit(features, labels)

# display the relative importance of each attribute
headers = set()

with open('../_data/astro-experience.csv') as file:
    for line in file:
        for element in line.split(','):

    headers = sorted(headers)

with open('../_data/astro-experience.csv') as file:
    for line in file:
        vector = []
        features = [f.strip() for f in line.split(',')]

        for element in headers:

            if element in features: