# 6.13. Operator Bitwise¶

• & - and

• | - or

• ^ - xor

• &= - iand

• |= - ior

• ^= - ixor

• << - lshift

• >> - rshift

• <<= - ilshift

• >>= - irshift

Operator

Method

obj & other

obj.__and__(other)

obj | other

obj.__or__(other)

obj ^ other

obj.__xor__(other)

obj &= other

obj.__iand__(other)

obj |= other

obj.__ior__(other)

obj ^= other

obj.__ixor__(other)

obj << other

obj.__lshift__(other)

obj >> other

obj.__rshift__(other)

obj <<= other

obj.__ilshift__(other)

obj >>= other

obj.__irshift__(other)

## 6.13.2. Example¶

>>> True + True
2

>>> True & True
True


## 6.13.3. AND - Conjunction¶

1 & 1 = 1
1 & 0 = 0
0 & 1 = 0
0 & 0 = 0

>>> True & True
True
>>>
>>> True & False
False
>>>
>>> False &  True
False
>>>
>>> False &  False
False


## 6.13.4. OR - Alternative¶

1 | 1 = 1
1 | 0 = 1
0 | 1 = 1
0 | 0 = 0

>>> True | True
True
>>>
>>> True | False
True
>>>
>>> False | True
True
>>>
>>> False | False
False


## 6.13.5. XOR - Exclusive Alternative¶

1 ^ 1 = 0
1 ^ 0 = 1
0 ^ 1 = 1
0 ^ 0 = 0

>>> True ^ True
False
>>>
>>> True ^ False
True
>>>
>>> False ^ True
True
>>>
>>> False ^ False
False


## 6.13.6. Bool¶

>>> a = True
>>> b = False

>>> a & b
False

>>> a ^ b
True

>>> a | b
True


## 6.13.7. Set¶

>>> a = {1,2,3}
>>> b = {2,3,4}

>>> a & b
{2, 3}

>>> a ^ b
{1, 4}

>>> a | b
{1, 2, 3, 4}


## 6.13.8. Dict¶

>>> a = {'commander': 'Melissa Lewis', 'botanist': 'Mark Watney'}
>>> b = {'pilot': 'Rick Martinez', 'chemist': 'Alex Vogel'}

>>> a & b
Traceback (most recent call last):
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for &: 'dict' and 'dict'

>>> a ^ b
Traceback (most recent call last):
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for ^: 'dict' and 'dict'

>>> a | b
{'commander': 'Melissa Lewis',
'botanist': 'Mark Watney',
'pilot': 'Rick Martinez',
'chemist': 'Alex Vogel'}

>>> a |= b
>>>
>>> a
{'commander': 'Melissa Lewis',
'botanist': 'Mark Watney',
'pilot': 'Rick Martinez',
'chemist': 'Alex Vogel'}
>>>
>>> b
{'pilot': 'Rick Martinez', 'chemist': 'Alex Vogel'}


## 6.13.9. Dictionary Update¶

>>> x = {'a':1, 'b':2, 'c':3}
>>> y = {'d':4, 'e':5}
>>>
>>> x | y
{'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3, 'd': 4, 'e': 5}
>>>
>>> x |= y
>>> x
{'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3, 'd': 4, 'e': 5}

>>> old_crew = {'commander': 'Melissa Lewis',
...             'botanist': 'Mark Watney'}
>>>
>>> new_crew = {'chemist': 'Alex Vogel',
...             'pilot': 'Rick Martinez'}
>>>
>>>
>>> old_crew | new_crew
{'commander': 'Melissa Lewis',
'botanist': 'Mark Watney',
'chemist': 'Alex Vogel',
'pilot': 'Rick Martinez'}

>>> old_crew
{'commander': 'Melissa Lewis', 'botanist': 'Mark Watney'}
>>>
>>> new_crew
{'chemist': 'Alex Vogel', 'pilot': 'Rick Martinez'}
>>>
>>>
>>> crew = old_crew | new_crew
>>> crew
{'commander': 'Melissa Lewis',
'botanist': 'Mark Watney',
'chemist': 'Alex Vogel',
'pilot': 'Rick Martinez'}

>>> old_crew |= new_crew
>>> old_crew
{'commander': 'Melissa Lewis',
'botanist': 'Mark Watney',
'chemist': 'Alex Vogel',
'pilot': 'Rick Martinez'}

>>> class dict:
...     def __or__(self, other):
...         return {**self, **other}
...
...     def __ior__(self, other):
...         self.update(other)
...         return self


## 6.13.10. Use Case - 0x01¶

• XOR as pow

• Excel uses ^ to rise number to the power of a second number

>>> from dataclasses import dataclass
>>>
>>>
>>> @dataclass
... class Number:
...     value: int
...
...     def __xor__(self, other):
...         return Number(self.value ** other.value)
>>>
>>>
>>> a = Number(2)
>>> b = Number(4)
>>>
>>> a ^ b
Number(value=16)


## 6.13.11. Use Case - 0x02¶

• Game

>>> hero >> Direction(left=10, up=20)


## 6.13.12. Use Case - 0x03¶

• Numpy

>>> import numpy as np

>>> a = np.array([[1, 2, 3],
...               [4, 5, 6],
...               [7, 8, 9]])
>>>
>>> a > 2
array([[False, False,  True],
[ True,  True,  True],
[ True,  True,  True]])
>>>
>>> (a>2) & (a<7)
array([[False, False,  True],
[ True,  True,  True],
[False, False, False]])
>>>
>>> (a>2) & (a<7) | (a>3)
array([[False, False,  True],
[ True,  True,  True],
[ True,  True,  True]])


Python understands this:

>>> ~( (a>2) & (a<7) | (a>3) )
array([[ True,  True, False],
[False, False, False],
[False, False, False]])


As as chained calls of the following methods:

>>> a.__gt__(2).__and__(a.__lt__(7)).__or__(a.__gt__(3)).__invert__()
array([[ True,  True, False],
[False, False, False],
[False, False, False]])


## 6.13.13. Use Case - 0x05¶

>>> def upper(text):
...     return str.upper(text)
>>>
>>> def lower(text):
...     return str.lower(text)
>>>
>>> def capitalize(text):
...     return str.capitalize(text)


Let's make a transformation:

>>> name = 'Mark Watney'
>>> upper(name)
'MARK WATNEY'


What if we have a pipe operator to do that?

>>> name = 'Mark Watney'
>>> name |> upper
Traceback (most recent call last):
SyntaxError: invalid syntax


Why? Because we can chain multiple pipe operations:

>>> name = 'Mark Watney'
>>> name |> upper |> lower |> capitalize
Traceback (most recent call last):
SyntaxError: invalid syntax