16.6. Logging Config File

16.6.1. File Config

Code 16.1. Ini file
[loggers]
keys=root,simpleExample

[handlers]
keys=consoleHandler

[formatters]
keys=simpleFormatter

[logger_root]
level=DEBUG
handlers=consoleHandler

[logger_simpleExample]
level=DEBUG
handlers=consoleHandler
qualname=simpleExample
propagate=0

[handler_consoleHandler]
class=StreamHandler
level=DEBUG
formatter=simpleFormatter
args=(sys.stdout,)

[formatter_simpleFormatter]
format=%(asctime)s - %(name)s - %(levelname)s - %(message)s
Code 16.2. yaml file
version: 1
formatters:
  simple:
    format: '%(asctime)s - %(name)s - %(levelname)s - %(message)s'
handlers:
  console:
    class: logging.StreamHandler
    level: DEBUG
    formatter: simple
    stream: ext://sys.stdout
loggers:
  simpleExample:
    level: DEBUG
    handlers: [console]
    propagate: no
root:
  level: DEBUG
  handlers: [console]

16.6.2. DictConfig

Code 16.3. Ini file
{
    'version': 1,
    'disable_existing_loggers': False,
    'formatters': {
        'standard': {
            'format': '%(asctime)s [%(levelname)s] %(name)s: %(message)s'
        },
    },
    'handlers': {
        'default': {
            'level': 'INFO',
            'formatter': 'standard',
            'class': 'logging.StreamHandler',
        },
    },
    'loggers': {
        '': {
            'handlers': ['default'],
            'level': 'INFO',
            'propagate': True
        },
        'django.request': {
            'handlers': ['default'],
            'level': 'WARN',
            'propagate': False
        },
    }
}
Table 16.1. DictConfig

Format

Description

filename

Specifies that a FileHandler be created, using the specified filename, rather than a StreamHandler

filemode

If filename is specified, open the file in this mode. Defaults to 'a'

format

Use the specified format string for the handler

datefmt

Use the specified date/time format, as accepted by time.strftime()

style

If format is specified, use this style for the format string. One of '%', '{' or '$' for printf-style, str.format() or string.Template respectively. Defaults to '%'

level

Set the root logger level to the specified level

stream

Use the specified stream to initialize the StreamHandler. Note that this argument is incompatible with filename - if both are present, a ValueError is raised

handlers

If specified, this should be an iterable of already created handlers to add to the root logger. Any handlers which don't already have a formatter set will be assigned the default formatter created in this function. Note that this argument is incompatible with filename or stream - if both are present, a ValueError is raised

16.6.3. Handlers

In addition to the base Handler class, many useful subclasses are provided:

StreamHandler instances send messages to streams (file-like objects).

FileHandler instances send messages to disk files.

BaseRotatingHandler is the base class for handlers that rotate log files at a certain point. It is not meant to be instantiated directly. Instead, use RotatingFileHandler or TimedRotatingFileHandler.

RotatingFileHandler instances send messages to disk files, with support for maximum log file sizes and log file rotation.

TimedRotatingFileHandler instances send messages to disk files, rotating the log file at certain timed intervals.

SocketHandler instances send messages to TCP/IP sockets. Since 3.4, Unix domain sockets are also supported.

DatagramHandler instances send messages to UDP sockets. Since 3.4, Unix domain sockets are also supported.

SMTPHandler instances send messages to a designated email address.

SysLogHandler instances send messages to a Unix syslog daemon, possibly on a remote machine.

NTEventLogHandler instances send messages to a Windows NT/2000/XP event log.

MemoryHandler instances send messages to a buffer in memory, which is flushed whenever specific criteria are met.

HTTPHandler instances send messages to an HTTP server using either GET or POST semantics.

WatchedFileHandler instances watch the file they are logging to. If the file changes, it is closed and reopened using the file name. This handler is only useful on Unix-like systems; Windows does not support the underlying mechanism used.

QueueHandler instances send messages to a queue, such as those implemented in the queue or multiprocessing modules.

NullHandler instances do nothing with error messages. They are used by library developers who want to use logging, but want to avoid the 'No handlers could be found for logger XXX' message which can be displayed if the library user has not configured logging. See Configuring Logging for a Library for more information.

16.6.4. Rotate

  • logging.handlers.WatchedFileHandler

  • logging.handlers.RotatingFileHandler

  • logging.handlers.TimedRotatingFileHandler

from logging import handlers

handler = handlers.TimedRotatingFileHandler(filename, when=LOG_ROTATE)

handler.setFormatter(logging.Formatter(log_format, datefmt='%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'))

#LOG_ROTATE = midnight
#set your log format

16.6.5. Examples

import logging
import os

logging.basicConfig(
    format='"{asctime}", "{levelname}", "{message}"',
    filename='...',
    style='{'
)

log = logging.getLogger(__name__)
level = os.getenv('LOG_LEVEL', 'INFO')
log.setLevel(level)


log.critical('Critical error... finishing')
log.error('Some problem but can continue')
log.warning('Warning, this is important')
log.info('Typical message')
log.debug('Debug message with extra information')


logging.getLogger('requests').setLevel('DEBUG')
logging.getLogger('_tmp').setLevel('ERROR')

Decorators:

from datetime import datetime
import logging

logging.basicConfig(
    level='DEBUG',
    datefmt='%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S',
    format='[{levelname}] {message}',
    style='{'
)


def timeit(func):
    def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
        time_start = datetime.now()
        result = func(*args, **kwargs)
        time_end = datetime.now()
        time = time_end - time_start
        logging.debug(f'Time: {time}')
        return result

    return wrapper


def debug(func):
    def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
        function = func.__name__
        logging.debug(f'Calling: {function=}, {args=}, {kwargs=}')
        result = func(*args, **kwargs)
        logging.debug(f'Result: {result}')
        return result

    return wrapper


@timeit
@debug
def add_numbers(a, b):
    return a + b


add_numbers(1, 2)
# [DEBUG] Calling: function='add_numbers', args=(1, 2), kwargs={}
# [DEBUG] Result: 3
# [DEBUG] Time: 0:00:00.000105

add_numbers(1, b=2)
# [DEBUG] Calling: function='add_numbers', args=(1,), kwargs={'b': 2}
# [DEBUG] Result: 3
# [DEBUG] Time: 0:00:00.000042

add_numbers(a=1, b=2)
# [DEBUG] Calling: function='add_numbers', args=(), kwargs={'a': 1, 'b': 2}
# [DEBUG] Result: 3
# [DEBUG] Time: 0:00:00.000040

16.6.6. Optimization

Formatting of message arguments is deferred until it cannot be avoided. However, computing the arguments passed to the logging method can also be expensive, and you may want to avoid doing it if the logger will just throw away your event. To decide what to do, you can call the isEnabledFor() method which takes a level argument and returns true if the event would be created by the Logger for that level of call. You can write code like this:

>>> def expensive_func1(): ...
>>> def expensive_func2(): ...
>>> import logging
>>>
>>>
>>> logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)
>>>
>>> if logger.isEnabledFor(logging.DEBUG):
...     logger.debug('Message with %s, %s', expensive_func1(),
...                                         expensive_func2())

so that if the logger's threshold is set above DEBUG, the calls to expensive_func1() and expensive_func2() are never made.

16.6.7. Further Reading